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最新报告:闪电网络隐私性和可扩展性优势低于预期

2020-1-14 14:33

 

据Cointelegraph 1月13日报道,加密货币交易所BitMEX的研究人员表示,闪电网络(Lightning Network)比特币实现的隐私和可扩展性方面的优势不及预期。

 

BitMEX 1月11日发布的一份报告显示,研究人员试图从现成的数据中推断出有关私密支付渠道的信息,从而确定闪电网络的增长情况。

该团队专注于非合作渠道关闭(non-cooperative channel closures)方面的研究,他们认为,自闪电网络开始活动以来,大约发生了60000笔此类交易。

 

当一个闪电网络节点在没有直接与该通道所连接的节点通信的情况下启动支付渠道关闭时,将发生非合作渠道关闭。

 

非合作渠道关闭比预期更为普遍

 

非合作通道关闭更容易跟踪和识别,并且必须在区块链上的区块中进行确认。由于这些特点, BitMEX研究人员从此类交易的数量高于预期得出以下结论:

 

“事实上,非合作性关闭比许多人想象的更常见,这意味着闪电网络的隐私和可扩展性优势也比许多人预期的要低。然而,随着用户更多地了解如何使用闪电网络,加上闪电钱包的功能提升,非合作关闭的流行程度可能会下降。”

 

报告指出,研究人员最初预计会发现3万个非合作渠道关闭,但结果却发现了前面提到的6万个。更大胆的估计是关闭的数目超过9万个,总共花费1 405BTC。

闪电网络攻击很少见

 

报告还解释称,在某些情况下,非合作渠道关闭会导致一方试图窃取资金,这被称为违约关闭(breach closure)。如果发现盗窃企图,并且另一方要求索赔所有资金,则违约终止之后可以进行罚款交易。报告称,以这种方式窃取资金的企图相当罕见:

我们的分析显示,这些罚款交易非常罕见。只有0.30%的非合作关闭导致罚款交易,占总交易价值的0.22%。

闪电网络虽然在许多人看来很有前途,但其在很大程度上仍处于试验阶段。正如Cointelegraph 2019年12月初报道的那样,一名Reddit用户在闪电网络上“丢失”了4枚比特币,随后根据自己的经验发表了一篇建议性文章。他还建议,对该系统感兴趣的用户在使用该系统发送大量比特币之前,应该彻底研究该系统的工作原理。

 

尽管如此,闪电网络承诺的几乎无感的即时交易还是得到了加密货币社区许多人的认可。2019年11月,债券市场资深人士尼克•巴蒂亚(Nik Bhatia)表示,随着闪电网络的出现,比特币将价值储存与交易规模和速度等优点结合在一起,目前已经成为一种前所未有的资产。

 

Researchers from cryptocurrency exchange BitMEX have suggested that the privacy and scalability benefits of Bitcoin’s (BTC) implementation of the Lightning Network are less than expected.

 

A report published by BitMEX on Jan. 11 illustrates the researchers’ efforts to determine the growth of the Lightning Network by trying to extrapolate information about private payment channels from readily available data. 

 

The team focused on non-cooperative channel closures and they suggest that — since the network started its activity — about 60,000 such transactions took place.

 

A non-cooperative channel closure happens when a Lightning Network node initiates the closure of a payment channel without directly communicating with the node that the channel is linked to.

 

Non-cooperative channel closures more prevalent than expected

 

Non-cooperative channel closures are more easily tracked and recognized, and they have to be confirmed in blocks on the blockchain. Due to these characteristics, BitMEX researchers drew the following conclusion from the higher-than-anticipated number of such transactions:

 

“The fact that non-cooperative closures are more common than many thought, means the privacy and scalability benefits of lightning are lower than many expected too. However, [...] as users learn more about how to use the lightning network and lightning wallets improve, the prevalence of non-cooperative closures could fall.”

 

The report notes that researchers initially expected to find 30,000 non-cooperative channel closures but instead discovered the aforementioned 60,000. More liberal estimates place the number of such closures at over 90,000, cumulatively spending 1,405 BTC. 

 

Lightning attacks are rare

 

The report also explains that in some instances, non-cooperative channel closures see a party attempt to steal the funds, which is called a breach closure. A breach closure can be followed by a penalty transaction if the attempted theft is detected and the other party claims all the funds. Attempts to steal funds in such ways are quite rare, according to the report:

 

“Our analysis shows that these penalty transactions are very rare. Only 0.30% of non-cooperative closures result in a penalty transaction or 0.22% by value.”

 

The Lightning Network, while promising according to many, is still largely experimental. As Cointelegraph reported in early December 2019, a Redditor “lost” four Bitcoins on the Lightning Network and later published advice based on his experience. He also suggested that users interested in the system should thoroughly research how the system works before using it to send significant amounts of Bitcoin.

 

Still, Lightning’s promise of nearly-feeless instant transactions has the approval of many in the cryptocurrency community. In November 2019, bond market veteran Nik Bhatia said that with Lightning, Bitcoin has become an unprecedented asset by combining a store of value with medium-of-exchange scale and speed.

原作者: Adrian Zmudzinski 来自: cointelegraph