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Google希望改变Cookie的工作方式

2020-1-17 15:10

谷歌控制着世界上大多数人的上网方式,其Chrome浏览器占据了全球一半以上的市场。现在,谷歌正计划摆脱公司和广告商追踪Chrome数百万用户的方式。

在周二的一篇博客中,Chrome的工程总监Justin Schuh说,公司计划在两年内逐步取消对第三方cookie的支持。

Cookies允许网站记录你的活动,而第三方Cookies允许你访问其他网站。Schuh说,删除这些内容将有助于互联网用户更好地保护他们的隐私。


他补充说:“用户要求更多的隐私——包括透明度、选择和对如何使用他们的数据的控制——很明显,网络生态系统需要进化来满足这些日益增长的需求。”

大多数其他流行的浏览器,包括苹果的Safari和Mozilla的Firefox,已经对互联网跟踪施加了更严格的限制,谷歌的声明是在微软(Microsoft)推出其新一代Edge浏览器的前一天发布的,这款浏览器基于Chrome的代码,但对cookie的限制更严格。

Schuh批评了Chrome的一些竞争对手所采用的方法。

他表示:“一些浏览器对这些担忧做出了反应,屏蔽了第三方cookie,但我们认为,这可能会产生意想不到的后果,对用户和网络生态系统都造成负面影响。”

移除cookies的举措是谷歌创建一套数字跟踪开放标准的努力的一部分,该标准于去年8月首次公布,名为“隐私沙箱”(Privacy Sandbox)。该公司当时表示,该项目的目的是改善用户隐私,同时保护出版商和广告商的业务。

Schuch当时写道:“如果不通过其他方式发布相关广告,就屏蔽cookies,这将大大降低出版商的主要资金来源,危及充满活力的网络的未来。”

Schuh现在表示谷歌有信心“以一种淘汰第三方cookie的方式来维持一个健康的、支持广告的网络”。

但专家们表示,谷歌的做法——从加强用户控制和加强第三方cookie的安全性开始——可能也会受到其自身数字广告的影响,而这部分广告收入占该公司收入的绝大部分。

“鉴于消费者越来越失望,其他浏览器厂商似乎有意限制第三方追踪。因此,人们越来越意识到,他们的浏览行为在整个网络(以及其他地方)都受到了追踪,”《消费者报告》(consumer Reports)消费者隐私与技术政策主管贾斯汀•布鲁克曼(Justin Brookman)表示。

“另一方面,谷歌似乎对保留第三方跟踪更感兴趣——但因为cookie是脆弱的,在其他地方也受到攻击,谷歌正在探索浏览器中的其他跟踪方法,”Brookman补充道。

这家科技巨头还因其在整个互联网领域的主导地位而受到美国和其他地方监管机构越来越多的审查,浏览方面的潜在变化可能也不会有什么不同。根据Statista的数据,Chrome占全球网络浏览器市场的60%以上,位居第二的Safari约占16%。

人们担心谷歌可能会利用其规模和主导地位,在没有cookie的情况下继续收集数据,并在此过程中扼杀竞争。

一位谷歌的发言人告诉CNN商业,Chrome呼吁整个生态系统参与到它的提议中来,并重申只有当用户、广告商和出版商的需求得到满足时,它才会逐步淘汰第三方cookie。发言人补充说,谷歌还依赖于第三方cookies来为其在其他网站上提供的广告服务,如果Chrome停止对这些网站的支持,这些广告将受到影响。


虽然谷歌还没有具体说明它打算用什么来替代cookie,但它收集的用户数据的数量可能并不重要。


“谷歌和其他领先的数据营销公司不再需要消耗大量的个人数据‘cookies’来跟踪和瞄准我们,”科技隐私研究和倡导组织数字民主中心(Center for Digital Democracy)执行主任杰夫·切斯特(Jeff Chester)说。“他们投资于技术,使他们能够收集人们的信息,然后准确预测他们将如何应对。

Google controls the way most of the world surfs the internet, with its Chrome browser accounting for more than half the global market. Now, it's planning to get rid of the way companies and advertisers track Chrome's millions of users.


In a blog post Tuesday, Chrome's director of engineering, Justin Schuh, said the company intends to phase out support for third-party cookies "within two years."
Cookies allow websites to log your activity, and third-party cookies give that permission to sites other than the ones you're on. Getting rid of them will help internet users better protect their privacy, Schuh said.

    "Users are demanding greater privacy — including transparency, choice and control over how their data is used — and it's clear the web ecosystem needs to evolve to meet these increasing demands," he added.

    Most other popular browsers, including Apple's Safari and Mozilla Firefox, already impose stricter restrictions on internet tracking, and Google's announcement came a day before Microsoft (MSFT) debuted its new Edge browser, which is built on Chrome's code but with greater restrictions on cookies.

    Schuh criticized the approach some of Chrome's competitors have deployed.

    "Some browsers have reacted to these concerns by blocking third-party cookies, but we believe this has unintended consequences that can negatively impact both users and the web ecosystem," he said, adding that it could promote more "opaque" and "invasive" tracking techniques.

    The initiative to remove cookies is part of Google's effort to create a set of open standards for digital tracking it first announced last August, dubbed Privacy Sandbox. The aim of the project, it said at the time, is to improve user privacy while also protecting the businesses of publishers and advertisers.

    "Blocking cookies without another way to deliver relevant ads significantly reduces publishers' primary means of funding, which jeopardizes the future of the vibrant web," Schuch wrote at the time.

    Schuh now says Google is confident it can "sustain a healthy, ad-supported web in a way that will render third-party cookies obsolete."

    But experts say Google's approach — which will start with greater user control and more security for third-party cookies — may also be influenced by its own digital advertising, which accounts for the vast majority of the company's revenue.

    "The other browser vendors seem motivated to actually limit third-party tracking given increasing consumer frustration. So many ads these days are retargeted based on visits to other sites, so people are increasingly aware that their browsing is tracked all over the web (and elsewhere)," said Justin Brookman, director of consumer privacy and technology policy at Consumer Reports.

    "Google on the other hand seems more interested in preserving third-party tracking — but because cookies are fragile and under attack elsewhere, Google is exploring other tracking methods in the browser," Brookman added.

    The tech giant is also under increased scrutiny from regulators in the United States and elsewhere over its dominance of the internet at large, and potential changes to browsing will likely be no different. Chrome accounts for more than 60% of the global web browser market, according to Statista, with second-placed Safari at around 16%.

    And there are fears that Google could use its size and dominance to keep collecting data even without cookies and stifle competition in the process.

    A Google spokesperson told CNN Business that Chrome calls on the entire ecosystem to engage with its proposals, reiterating that it will only phase out third-party cookies once the needs of users, advertisers and publishers are met. Google also relies on third-party cookies for ads it serves on other sites, which would be affected if Chrome were to stop supporting them, the spokesperson added.

      While Google hasn't yet specified what it plans to replace cookies with, the amount of user data it collects anyway means it might not matter.

      "Google and other leading data marketing companies no longer require consuming vast number of personal data 'cookies' to track and target us," said Jeff Chester, executive director of the Center for Digital Democracy, a tech privacy research and advocacy group. "They have invested in technologies that enable them to gather information on people and then make accurate predictions about how they will respond.
      原作者: Rishi Iyengar 来自: CNN