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China leads in renewable energy sector

2020-2-5 11:04

 

Industry to gain further momentum on nation's market-oriented efforts

Since the renewable energy law took effect in January 2006, China's renewable energy sector has grown into the world's largest from its modest beginnings, with rapid utilization of renewable power and the advancement of related technologies.

In 2018, 26.7 percent of the electricity generated in China, or 1,867,000 gigawatt hours, was from renewables, increasing 10.6 percentage points from the level in 2005.

The central authorities have invested more than 3 billion yuan ($434.66 million) on research and development of renewable energy technologies during the 12th and 13th Five-Year Plan (2011-20) periods, data from the National Energy Administration and the Ministry of Science and Technology showed.

In the coming 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-25) period, wind and photovoltaic power across China are to fully achieve power grid parity, or the tipping point at which their generation costs are the same or less as electricity from the power grid, thanks to the country's efforts to reach a greener energy mix, industry experts said.

Li Ye, executive director for regulation at the National Energy Administration, said during the annual China EV 100 Forum held on Jan 10-12 that China's non-fossil energy power capacity had totaled 800 gigawatts by the end of 2019, accounting for 41.5 percent of the total.

The capacity of hydropower, wind power and PV power respectively hit 360 GW, 200 GW and 190 GW, levels that top those seen in the rest of the world.

He said the average utilization rate of hydropower, wind and PV power had achieved 97 percent, 96 percent and 98 percent respectively in 2019. Non-fossil power, which also includes nuclear power, contributed to 30 percent of total power generation.

Kou Nannan, head of China research at Bloomberg New Energy Finance, said enhancement in market-oriented competition would further boost the development of China's new energy sector.

"The costs of wind and PV power are set to continue dropping during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, making them increasingly competitive, as reforms in the electricity market deepens, with market forces playing a bigger role in the new energy sector," he said.

For the long term, the renewable energy industry will develop in a healthy fashion without subsidies, thanks to market competition that brings down costs.

It is within the industry's expectation that the authorities will cap and finally phase out subsidies for new projects, although it is difficult for some players to make sustainable profits in certain regions without those subsidies, according to Kou.

He also said reducing curtailment and increasing utilization of renewable power, especially in the country's central and eastern areas, should be the new focus for the next phase development of renewables. The development of new technologies on energy storage, demand side response and microgrid is also important, as the future of renewable energy is increasingly digital.

Li Junfeng, director of the renewable energy branch of the China Energy Research Society, also said the phasing out of subsidies, a booster to market-oriented competition, will accelerate the ability of renewables to reach grid parity.

It is important that everyone fully realizes the importance of renewable energy development for the transition toward a greener energy mix in China and high-quality development, he said.

"The renewable energy law establishes policies for national renewable energy targets, and renewable power connection and purchase. But not everyone has a mindset to embrace a high proportion of renewable energy in the energy mix, and curtailment remains a problem," said Li, who is also former head of the National Center for Climate Change Strategy Research.

Kou added that decarbonization of the energy system should be accelerated, and this will rely not only on the development of wind and PV power, but also carbon-neutral power from alternatives that include energy storage, hydrogen, biomass, and nuclear energy.

 

工业在国家的市场导向努力中获得进一步的动力


自2006年1月《可再生能源法》实施以来,随着可再生能源的快速利用和相关技术的进步,中国可再生能源行业从一开始就发展成为世界上最大的可再生能源行业。


2018年,中国可再生能源发电量占总发电量的26.7%,即1867000千兆瓦时,较2005年增长10.6个百分点。


国家能源局和科技部的数据显示,在“十二五”和“十三五”期间,中央政府在可再生能源技术的研发上投入了30多亿元人民币(4.3466亿美元)。


在未来14日五年计划(2021 - 25)时期,风力和光伏发电在中国全面实现电网平价、或发电成本的临界点是相同或更少的电力电网,由于国家的努力达到一个更环保的能源结构,业内专家说。


国家能源局监管局局长李晔在1月10日至12日举行的中国EV 100年度论坛上表示,到2019年底,中国的非化石能源发电能力已经达到8亿千瓦,占总容量的41.5%。


水电、风电、光伏发电量分别达到360吉瓦、200吉瓦、190吉瓦,居世界前列。


他说,2019年水电、风电和光伏发电的平均利用率分别达到97%、96%和98%。包括核能在内的非化石能源占总发电量的30%。


彭博新能源财经(Bloomberg New Energy Finance)中国研究主管寇南南表示,加强市场竞争将进一步推动中国新能源行业的发展。


他说:“随着电力市场改革的深化,市场力量在新能源领域发挥更大的作用,风能和光伏发电的成本在第14个五年计划期间将继续下降,这将使它们更具竞争力。”


从长远来看,由于市场竞争降低了成本,可再生能源产业将在没有补贴的情况下健康发展。


寇表示,尽管一些企业很难在没有补贴的情况下在某些地区获得可持续的利润,但业内预计政府将限制并最终逐步取消对新项目的补贴。


他还表示,减少限电和增加可再生能源的使用,尤其是在中国的中部和东部地区,应该成为下一阶段可再生能源发展的新重点。随着可再生能源的未来日益数字化,能源储存、需求侧响应和微电网等新技术的发展也很重要。


中国能源研究会可再生能源分会主任李俊峰还表示,逐步取消补贴将加快可再生能源实现并网发电的能力,而补贴是市场竞争的助推器。


他说,重要的是每个人都充分认识到可再生能源发展对中国向绿色能源结构转型和高质量发展的重要性。


“可再生能源法为国家可再生能源目标、可再生能源连接和购买制定了政策。但并不是每个人都愿意接受可再生能源在能源结构中占很大比例,限电仍然是个问题,”前国家气候变化战略研究中心主任李说。


寇补充说,应该加快能源系统的脱碳进程,这不仅要依靠风能和光伏发电的发展,还要依靠包括储能、氢、生物质能和核能在内的替代能源的碳中性发电。

 

原作者: Liu Zhihua 来自: china daily