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美国对进口钢材和铝材征收关税

2020-2-10 11:01

 

 

WASHINGTON, Feb. 8 (Xinhua) -- Amid wide opposition, U.S. administration's decision to increase tariffs on derivative steel and aluminum imports by 25 percent and 10 percent respectively took effect on Saturday.

U.S. President Donald Trump signed a proclamation two weeks ago to raise tariffs on derivative steel and aluminum imports to cover nails, staples and other downstream products, calling it "necessary and appropriate."

Foreign producers of these derivative articles have increased shipments of such articles to the United States to "circumvent" the existing duties on steel and aluminum imports, threatening to undermine the administration's actions to address the national security risks, said the president.

Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Mexico and South Korea are exempt from the additional tariffs on derivative steel products, while Argentina, Australia, Canada and Mexico are exempt from the additional duties on derivative aluminum products, according to the proclamation.

Economists have long argued that such tariffs have hurt the American manufacturing sector and the overall economy, and the latest move has provoked further criticism.

"This latest action was significant because, explicitly for the first time, Trump was imposing new tariffs to help an industry suffering because of his previous tariffs," wrote Chad Bown, a senior fellow at the Washington-based Peterson Institute for International Economics.

In 2018, the Trump administration unilaterally imposed a 25-percent tariff on steel imports and 10-percent tariff on aluminum imports citing national security concerns, under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962.

According to a research by Trade Partnership Worldwide, LLC, an international trade and economic consulting firm, higher costs from steel and aluminum tariffs, quotas and associated retaliation by trading partners would reduce U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) by 0.2 percent annually.

The research also showed that 16 jobs would be lost in other U.S. sectors for every job gained in the steel or aluminum sector, and every U.S. state will experience a net loss of jobs due to the tariffs.

Trump's new method of extending his steel and aluminum tariffs raises a host of worries, including the "increased uncertainty" that companies face in light of the administration's approach to trade policy, Bown said.

"With each round of cascading tariffs, Trump has bullied more American companies into becoming protectionist," Bown argued. "For many Americans, the higher costs resulting from his tariffs mean they can no longer compete with foreign firms in either the U.S. or global market."

The "Tariff Man" has imposed policies that are changing both the economy and America's political economy of protectionism, he said. "The worst may be yet to come."

 

新华社华盛顿2月8日电(记者王晓伟)美国政府决定对进口自中国的钢材和铝材分别加征25%和10%的关税,但遭到广泛反对。


美国总统川普两星期前签署了一项声明,提高对进口钢材和铝的关税,包括钉子、主食和其他下游产品,他说,这是“必要和适当的”。


总统表示,这些衍生品的外国生产商增加了向美国出口此类产品的数量,以“规避”现有的钢铁和铝进口关税,这有可能破坏美国政府应对国家安全风险的行动。


根据公告,阿根廷、澳大利亚、巴西、加拿大、墨西哥和韩国免除对衍生钢铁产品的额外关税,而阿根廷、澳大利亚、加拿大和墨西哥免除对衍生铝产品的额外关税。


经济学家长期以来一直认为,这样的关税损害了美国制造业和整体经济,而最新的举措招致了进一步的批评。


华盛顿彼得森国际经济研究所(Peterson Institute for International Economics)高级研究员查德·鲍恩(Chad Bown


2018年,特朗普政府以国家安全为由,单方面对进口钢铁征收25%的关税,对进口铝征收10%的关税,根据1962年《贸易扩张法案》第232条。


根据国际贸易和经济咨询公司Trade Partnership Worldwide, LLC的一项研究,钢铁和铝关税、配额以及贸易伙伴的相关报复措施带来的成本上升,将使美国国内生产总值(GDP)每年减少0.2%。


该研究还显示,钢铁或铝行业每增加一个工作岗位,美国其他行业就会减少16个工作岗位,而且由于关税,每个美国州都将经历工作岗位的净损失。


鲍恩说,特朗普延长钢铁和铝关税的新方法引发了一系列担忧,包括企业在政府的贸易政策方针下面临的“不确定性增加”。


鲍恩说:“随着每一轮的连锁关税,特朗普已经迫使更多的美国公司变成了保护主义者。”“对很多美国人来说,关税带来的成本上升意味着他们无法再在美国或全球市场与外国公司竞争。”


他说,“关税人”实施的政策正在改变美国的经济和保护主义的政治经济。“最糟糕的可能还在后头。”

 

来自: xinhua