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病毒疫情引发舆论战

2020-3-25 15:33

NIH国家过敏和传染病研究所的主任Anthony Fauci和‪副总裁迈克便士‬听美国总统唐纳德·特朗普领导每日冠状病毒反应在华盛顿在白宫简报,我们3月24日,2020年。【图片/机构】


在多次使用“中国病毒”一词后,美国总统唐纳德·特朗普周一在推特上表示,人们应该“保护我们的亚裔美国人社区”,并补充道,“病毒的传播……不是他们的错。”


是道歉吗?


是的,但西蒙弗雷泽大学(Simon Fraser University)全球传播政治经济学加拿大研究主任赵月芝(Yuezhi Zhao)表示,这主要是“为了赢得亚裔美国人的选票而发表的廉价言论”。


“这是一场沟通战,在这场战争中,美国总统采取了强硬手段,并发挥了主导作用,”加拿大皇家学会院士赵在接受《中国日报》采访时写道。


“特朗普现在正在利用一种病毒的命名来维持并升级他对中国的战争。一旦我们在这样的背景下理解了他的种族主义言论,很难想象他会道歉。”


虽然世界卫生组织已经将这种冠状病毒命名为COVID-19,以避免给人带来污名,但是川普几个星期来一直为COVID-19是“中国病毒”进行辩护。


“作为一名传播学学者,我可以毫不犹豫地说,命名和标注权力是一种极其重要的传播权力,”赵说。


她说,美国总统拥有巨大的沟通能力。在全世界应该团结起来对抗威胁整个人类的流行病之际,特朗普使用这样一个词确实是“恶意的、站不住脚的、虚伪的、绝对令人厌恶的”。


赵认为特朗普的标签“不仅是故意的,而且是机会主义的”,他说他的动机是“竞选连任;这是一种故意使用的沟通武器,分散他的注意力,以促进自己的利益在所有的不利条件”。

赵跃志,教授,加拿大西蒙弗雷泽大学全球传播政治经济学研究主席。


赵说,随着美国冠状病毒危机的加深,特朗普利用公共健康威胁升级他的反华运动以获取个人政治利益,对此她并不感到意外。


“值得赞扬的是,美国主流媒体和前国务卿希拉里·克林顿最近对特朗普的种族主义策略提出了批评,”赵说。不过,我们不要忘记《华尔街日报》(the Wall Street Journal)在2月初明确引用了高度种族主义的“亚洲病夫”(sick man of Asia)比喻。事实上,那篇文章以及随后的反应在中美在媒体和传播领域的冲突升级中发挥了重要作用。”


赵指出,美国其他高层官员多次使用类似的名称和标签,如“中国病毒”和“武汉病毒”。


“如果有权势的政客和有影响力的领导人是指责中国的‘主要定义者’,那么美国媒体在宣传这些人的时候,就是在放大或‘次要定义者’种族主义操纵和粗暴的勒索策略。”赵说,这种标签会加剧不断升级的种族冲突以及中美关系的紧张。


作为一名研究全球传播的学者,赵还发现,一个自称是“自由、平等和正义的灯塔”的国家,居然会有意地使用这样的命名和标签,这很“讽刺”。这表明特朗普和他的政府“试图用一切手段掩盖自己的无能……未能服务于美国人民的广泛利益。”


据媒体报道,亚裔美国人因感染冠状病毒在街上遭到同学或陌生人的殴打。


“这是令人震惊的,也是毁灭性的。他的言行只会进一步分裂美国,而不是动员全国人民团结起来遏制疾病。””而不是统一的人类共同争取一个更公正和和平的世界,世界上最强大的政府的领导人是种族和民族冲突不断升级,和分散人们的所有国家和颜色的理解,最后,只有一个种族,也就是说,人类。


赵补充说:“世界传播领域需要更多的医疗信息,更多的成功故事和与COVIDd-19作战的经验教训的传播,更多的人类团结、坚韧和勇敢的表达,而不是种族主义的诽谤和反种族主义的反驳。”

 

NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Director Anthony Fauci and ‪Vice President Mike Pence‬ listen as US President Donald Trump leads the daily coronavirus response briefing at the White House in Washington, US March 24, 2020. [Photo/Agencies]

 

After repeatedly using the term "Chinese virus", US President Donald Trump tweeted Monday that people should "protect our Asian American community" by adding "the spreading of the Virus ...is NOT their fault".

Was it an apology?

Yes, but it mostly "serves as cheap rhetoric to win Asian American votes", according to Yuezhi Zhao, a professor and Canada Research Chair in the Political Economy of Global Communication at Simon Fraser University.

"This is a communication war, and it is one in which the US president is playing hardball and taking the lead," Zhao, who is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, wrote to China Daily in an interview.

"Trump is now exploiting the naming of a virus to sustain and escalate his war against China. Once we understand his racist rhetoric within such a context, it is hard to imagine that he will apologize," Zhao continued.

Although the World Health Organization has named the coronavirus COVID-19 to avoid stigmatizing, Trump defended calling COVID-19 the "Chinese virus" for weeks.

"As a communication scholar, I can say without any hesitation that naming and labeling power is an extremely important form of communicative power," Zhao said.

She said the US president commands a huge amount of communicative power. At a time when the whole world should be rallying together to fight against a pandemic that threats the entire humanity, for Trump to use such a term is truly "ill-intended, indefensible, disingenuous and absolutely disgusting".

By arguing that Trump's label is "not only deliberately, but also opportunistically" using the term, Zhao said his motive is "his re-election campaign; it is a deliberate deployment of a communicative weapon of distraction to advance his own interests against all odds".

Zhao said she was not surprised that as the corona virus crisis in the US deepens that Trump would exploit a public health threat to escalate his anti-China campaign for his personal political gain.

"To their credit, mainstream US media and former US secretary of state Hilary Clinton have recently voiced criticisms of Trump's racist tactics," Zhao said. "However, let's not forget the Wall Street Journal's explicit invocation of the highly racist 'sick man of Asia' trope in early February. As a matter of fact, that article and the subsequent (reaction) have played an important role in the … escalation of conflict between the US and China in the realm of media and communication."

Zhao noted that other high-level US officials have repeatedly used similar names and labels such as "Chinese virus" and "Wuhan virus".

"If powerful politicians and influential leaders are serving as 'primary definers' in blaming China, then the US media, in giving publicity to such individuals, are serving as amplifiers or 'secondary definers' of racist manipulations and blunt strategies of extortion,". Zhao said, adding that the labeling can increase the escalating racial conflict as well as the intensity of relations between the US and China.

As a scholar of global communication, Zhao also found it "ironic" that the president of a country that claims to be the "beacon of freedom, equality, and justice", would deliberately resort to such naming and labeling. It shows that Trump and his administration are "trying all means to cover up (their) own incompetency and … failure to serve in the broad interest of the American people."

There have been media reports that Asian Americans have been physically assaulted by classmates or strangers on the streets for the coronavirus.

"This is alarming and truly devastating. Instead of mobilizing the entire nation in a unified struggle to contain the disease, the words and deeds of Trump and his type will only further divide the US," Zhao continued. "Instead of unifying humanity in a common struggle for a more just and peaceful world, the leader of the world's most powerful government is escalating racial and ethnic conflicts, and distracting people of all nations and colors from understanding that there is, in the end, only one race, that is, the human race.

"Instead of racist slurs and anti-racist rebuttals, the world's communication sphere needs more medical information, more circulation of successful stories and learned experiences in fighting against COVIDd-19, and more expressions of human solidarity, resilience, and bravery," Zhao added.

 

原作者: RENA LI 来自: china daily