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澳大利亚政府为水权交易建立区块链账簿

2020-5-14 15:34

 

政府机构澳大利亚北部发展合作研究中心(CRCNA)正与区块链公司Civic Ledger合作,在昆士兰州北部(FNQ)地区开发一个水交易平台——水总账。


澳大利亚的水贸易是一项复杂的业务。水权或应享权利占总“水池”的一部分,但应享权利是永久授予的。因此,新用户或现有用户增加用水份额的唯一方法是从现有用户那里购买权利。


希斯•莱杰告诉《莱杰观察》杂志,市场相对不透明,而且由于缺乏对交易对象、交易地点和交易时间的报告而受到批评。此外,目前的交易报告流程是分散的,并引发了对虚假交易的担忧。


其基本目标是确保所有的——农业、工业、城市和环境——能够公平地共享水资源。然而,问题在于复杂的商业规则,这些规则控制着不同的用水权利及其转让。


复杂性的核心是参与者的数量。有7个监管机构,4个州注册机构,300种水产品和15000多个管理水交易的商业规则。这意味着中介机构会蓬勃发展。


在CRCNA的帮助下,思杰公司将进行一项研究项目的试点,并建立一个保存所有水交易数据的公共登记册。这也将有助于交易优化,降低利益相关者的成本。但最重要的是,它将增加透明度。


“水账本平台将彻底改变灌溉车交易临时用水分配的方式,”公民账本的首席执行官和联合创始人卡特里娜·多纳吉说。“推动水市场创新的一个催化剂是消除水分配交易中不必要的复杂性。这意味着简化流程,并向利益相关者提供更清晰的说明。”


该项目还包括来自昆士兰自然资源矿产和能源部门、SunWater、皇家墨尔本理工大学区块链创新中心、格里菲斯大学和FNQ Growers的代表。


政府所有的供水公司SunWater将向水务总帐平台提供历史临时用水分配数据。解决方案将包括嵌入供水计划规则的智能合同。他们的目标是使灌溉者能够立即交换临时分配的水,目前这需要几周的时间来完成。


Civic Ledger的解决方案基于Ethereum区块链,并使用了DAML smart合同语言,与澳大利亚证券交易所使用的语言相同。这家初创公司希望改变澳大利亚的水资源市场,向东盟地区出口价值130亿澳元(合84亿美元)的农产品。


然而,由于2019冠状病毒病危机,该项目面临一些挑战。


“我们计划举办虚拟活动和培训机会来展示水账本平台,并为灌溉者提供远程访问和支持,以使用虚拟交易模拟器来显示临时水分配的交易,”Donaghy补充说。


Civic Ledger专注于使用区块链技术的公民用例。它目前的一些项目包括跟踪酒类许可证和区块链知识产权。

 

Government agency the Cooperative Research Centre for Developing Northern Australia (CRCNA) is collaborating with blockchain firm Civic Ledger to develop a water trading platform in the Far North Queensland (FNQ) region, the Water Ledger. 

Water trading in Australia is a complex business. Water rights or entitlements provide a share of the total water “pool” but the entitlements were granted in perpetuity. So the only way for new or existing users to increase their share of water is to buy entitlements from existing holders.

Civic Ledger told Ledger Insights that the market is relatively opaque and has received criticism for lack of reporting on who is trading what, where and when. Additionally, the current process of reporting trades is fragmented and raises concerns about fake transactions. 

The basic goal is to ensure that all — agriculture, industries, cities, and environment — can share water fairly. However, the problem is the complicated business rules that govern different water entitlements and their transfer. 

At the core of the complexity is the number of participants. There are seven regulators, four State registries, 300 water products and over 15,000 business rules that administer water trades. That means intermediaries thrive.

With help from the CRCNA, Civic Ledger will pilot a research project and form a public register which holds all water trading data. This would also help trade optimization, reducing costs for stakeholders. But above all it will add transparency.

“The Water Ledger platform will completely transform the way irrigators trade temporary water allocations,” said Katrina Donaghy, CEO and Co-founder of Civic Ledger. “A catalyst to driving innovation across water markets is to remove unnecessary complexities in how water allocations are traded. This means simplifying the process and providing greater clarity to stakeholders.”

The project also involves representatives from the Queensland Department of Natural Resources Mines and Energy, SunWater, the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) Blockchain Innovation Hub, Griffith University and FNQ Growers. 

SunWater, the government-owned water supply company, will provide historical temporary water allocation data to the Water Ledger platform. The solution will include smart contracts embedded with rules of water supply schemes. The goal is to enable irrigators to instantly trade temporary water allocations, which currently takes weeks to execute. 

Civic Ledger’s solution is based on the Ethereum blockchain and uses the DAML smart contracting language, the same one used by the Australian Securities Exchange. The startup hopes to transform water markets in Australia to unlock A$13 billion ($8.4 billion) in agricultural exports to the ASEAN region. 

However, the project is facing some challenges due to the COVID-19 crisis. 

“We are planning on holding virtual events and training opportunities to demonstrate the Water Ledger platform and provide remote access and support for irrigators to use the virtual trading simulator to show trading of temporary water allocations,” added Donaghy. 

Civic Ledger is focused on civic use cases using blockchain technology. Some of its current projects include tracking liquor licenses and blockchain for intellectual property. 

 

来自: Ledger Insights