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使用区块链的本地能源交易现在已经在苏格兰海岸附近的奥克尼群岛展开

2020-5-21 12:16

 

使用区块链的本地能源交易现在已经在苏格兰海岸附近的奥克尼群岛展开。该项目由英国entech公司电子领导。自3月底以来,截至本文撰写之时,已发生了逾1100笔交易。


项目交易商由英国商业、能源和工业战略部(BEIS)支持,旨在为可再生领域的多种能源服务提供市场。


对于天气多变、可再生能源依赖时间的电网来说,挑战在于满足供需。风吹过的奥克尼是试验这项技术的合适地点,这里有高水平的可再生能源发电,经常超过需求,因此当发电机关闭或减少时就会损失。TraDER提供市场层,将生成器和本地存储资产集合在一起,以减少这些级别的缩减,同时确保网络保持稳定。这些资产包括可储存和释放能量的蓄电池和电动汽车。


“我们想让分布式能源(DERs)更容易发挥它们的全部作用,降低管理电网的成本和碳强度,”电子公司的首席执行官Jo-Jo Hubbard说。“我们相信,这是第一个多边化的本地市场,它实际上影响了电力的物理流动,带来了更多零碳排放、零边际成本的在线电力。”


这个由八名成员组成的项目财团包括电力公司法国电力公司(EDF)、苏格兰和南部电力网络公司(Scottish and Southern electricity Networks)、行业和研究合作伙伴以及非政府组织苏格兰能源协会(Community Energy Scotland)。

区块链平台


电子是区块链在能源领域的先驱。该公司的第一个项目是基于区块链的资产注册和供应商切换解决方案的实施。其他项目侧重于不同能源市场的能源管理和交易。


电子的项目方法的特点是建立一个由合作伙伴组成的联盟,这些伙伴贡献了行业专业知识,最终将成为技术的驱动因素。


哈伯德说,电子的核心平台可以被看作是一个去中心化的微服务架构,它使许多不同的团体能够通过一组共享的功能和规则来托管数据集和独立市场和/或服务。


“奥克尼可再生能源削减市场是这种基础设施可以承载的一种类型的市场的一个例子。这个正好是由电子操作的,但平台的设计是这样的,这是不必要的。”


就实现而言,这是一个连接API(应用程序编程接口)的问题。这意味着,只要受到控制,我们就可以与许多不同类型的连接资产进行交互。与这些物联网(IoT)系统的集成只需要通过我们可用的api和基于区块链的资产注册登记进行通信,”哈伯德说。


工作流程是,可再生能源发电商(这里指风力发电商)提交他们愿意支付的本地存储资产价格,以避免被削减。这可以提前完成。然后,当接收到缩减信号时,价格和所需的资产量实时运行,此时它与可用的存储资产相匹配。


随着项目的进展,目标是继续通过与活跃的网络管理系统的集成进行扩展,使更多的参与方联机,目标是聚合本地和最终的全国市场。

交易和交易


奥克尼和其他苏格兰岛屿长期以来一直处于清洁能源运动的前沿,以提高自身的可持续性,并参与了多个能源项目。这些问题包括为岛屿电网开发数字解决方案,以及将地方供热网、电动汽车和电网合并成一个单一的可控制系统。TraDER在其早期的项目中构建了这些基础开发和那些by Electron的开发。


可再生能源交易已成为区块链在能源领域最受欢迎的使用案例之一。这在一定程度上反映了它对未来能源系统的重要性。随着DERs的普及,对连接设备之间的事务进行近实时跟踪的需求也在不断增长。


国际可信区块链应用协会(INATBA)能源工作组联席主席、能源网络基金会(energy Web Foundation)前监管事务助理、政策专家艾琳•亚当斯基(Irene Adamski)表示:“当区块链与DERs和物联网设备结合在一起时,它在可再生能源交易方面有很大潜力。”


“有了第二代分布式账本技术和其他技术,我们能够自动化必要的优化操作,同时由于账本的不变性确保数据的准确性。”

 

该领域的其它先行者包括LO3 Energy,该公司已在美国、欧洲和日本等地启动了当地项目。澳大利亚的电力账簿是另一个在全球范围内不断增长的项目组合,从澳大利亚到印度再到法国。可再生能源交易也是能源网基金会正在开发的关键用例之一,该基金会还参与了另一个风能储存项目。


INATBA的能源工作组正在与伦敦大学学院能源研究所(University College London energy Institute)和伦敦大学学院(ucl)领导的全球p2p、社区自我消费和交易能源模型天文台(Global Observatory on Peer-to-Peer, Community own - consumption and Transactive energy Models)建立一个能源交易合作框架的初期阶段。


在谈到奥克尼项目时,亚当斯基表示,该项目非常有前景,有合适的财团和成熟的技术,可以让英国能源行业在能源转型的曲线上走在前面。然而,她警告说,由于该项目是根据其独特的岛屿情况量身定制的,因此没有必要走得太远。


“为中国大陆或英国电网的大部分地区实施类似的解决方案,将需要更多的实践研究,对现有解决方案进行优化,可能需要最终在某些地区推出硬件。”看看这个项目的下一阶段将如何进行将是很有趣的。有关可伸缩性、电网效率收益和经济可行性的数据将引起全球能源界的极大兴趣。”


Adamski补充说,能源领域的区块链很幸运地拥有大量概念和MVPs的成功证明。“然而,我们现在需要的是成熟的解决方案,能够在不需要监管机构和政策制定者做出巨大让步的情况下,与实际电网进行规模化和整合——奥克尼项目显然能够做到这一点。”

 

Local energy trading using blockchain is now live in the Orkney islands off the coast of Scotland. The project is led by UK entech company Electron. Over 1,100 trades have taken place at the time of writing since the end of March.

Project TraDER supported by the UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS) aims to deliver a marketplace for multiple energy services in the renewable sector.

The challenge for networks with variable weather and time dependent renewables is to match the supply and demand. Windswept Orkney is an apt location to trial the technology, having a high level of renewable generation that frequently exceeds demand and consequently is lost when generators are switched off or curtailed. TraDER provides the market layer to bring together the generators and local storage assets to reduce those levels of curtailment while also ensuring the network remains stable. Such assets include storage batteries and electric vehicles, which can both store and release energy.

“We want to make it easier for distributed energy resources (DERs) to play their full role in lowering the cost and carbon intensity of managing the grid,” says Jo-Jo Hubbard, CEO of Electron. “We believe that this is the first multi-sided local marketplace that actually affects the physical flow of power and brings more zero carbon, zero marginal cost power online.”

The eight-member project consortium includes electricity utilities EDF and Scottish and Southern Electricity Networks, industry and research partners and the NGO Community Energy Scotland.

Blockchain platform

Electron is a leading pioneer of blockchain in the energy sector. The company’s first project was the implementation of a blockchain-based asset register and supplier switching solution. Other projects have focused on energy management and trading in different energy markets.

Electron’s project approach is characterized by the build of a consortium of partners, who contribute industry expertise and ultimately will be the drivers of the technology.

Hubbard says that Electron’s core platform can be thought of as a decentralized micro-services architecture that enables many different parties to host data sets and stand-up markets and/or services across a shared set of functions and rules. 

“The Orkney renewables curtailment market is an example of one type of market that can be hosted on this infrastructure. This one happens to be operated by Electron, but the platform is designed such that this is not necessary.”

In terms of implementation, it’s a matter of connecting an API (application programming interface). “This means that we can interact with many different types of connected asset as long as they are controlled. Integration with these internet of things (IoT) systems only requires communication through our available APIs and enrollment on the blockchain-based asset register,” said Hubbard.

The workflow is that renewable generators, in this case wind, submit the price they would be willing to pay a local storage asset to avoid being curtailed. This can be done in advance. Then, in real time when the curtailment signal is received, the price and required asset volume go live, at which point it is matched with the available storage assets.

As the project evolves, the aim is to continue to expand through integration with the active network management system to bring more parties online, with the goal to aggregate local and ultimately national markets.

Trading and transacting

Orkney, along with other Scottish islands, has long been at the forefront of the clean energy movement in a bid to become more self-sustaining and has been involved in several energy projects. Issues these have addressed include the development of digital solutions for island grids and the integration of local heating networks, electric vehicles and the electricity grid into a single controllable system. TraDER builds on both these foundational developments as well as those by Electron in its earlier projects.

Renewables trading has become one of the most popular use cases for blockchain in the energy sector. This is partly a reflection of its importance for future energy systems. As the penetration of DERs grows, so will the need to track an ever-growing number of transactions between connected devices on a near real time basis.

“Blockchain has a lot of potential for renewable energy trading when it is combined with DERs and IoT devices;” says policy specialist Irene Adamski, co-chair of the Energy working group of the International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications (INATBA) and former regulatory affairs associate at the Energy Web Foundation. 

“With second generation distributed ledger technology and beyond, we are able to automate the necessary optimization operations, while ensuring the veracity of the data due to the immutability aspect of the ledger.”

Other pioneers in this field include LO3 Energy, which has launched projects locally in the US as well as in Europe and Japan, among other locations. Australia’s Power Ledger is another with a growing portfolio of projects across the globe from Australia to India to France. Renewable trading is also one of the key use cases under development by the Energy Web Foundation which was involved in another wind energy storage project. 

INATBA’s energy working group is in the early stages of setting up a collaboration framework on energy trading with the University College London Energy Institute and UCL-led Global Observatory on Peer-to-Peer, Community Self-Consumption and Transactive Energy Models.

Commenting on the Orkney project specifically, Adamski says that it is very promising, with the right consortium and a sophistication that could put the UK energy sector ahead of the curve towards the energy transition. However, she cautions the need not to get too far ahead as the project is tailored to its unique island situation.

“Implementing similar solutions for the mainland or a majority of the UK grid will take much more hands-on research, refinement of existing solutions and likely require an eventual hardware rollout for some regions. It will be interesting to see how the next stages of the project will carry out. The data regarding scalability, efficiency gains for the grid and economic viability will be of great interest to the global energy community.”

Adamski adds that blockchain in the energy sector is lucky to have a large number of successful proofs of concept and MVPs. “However, what we need now are mature solutions, able to both scale and integrate with the actual grid without needing huge concessions from regulators and policy makers – something the Orkney project has obviously been able to accomplish.”

 

来自: Ledger Insights