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英国发布有争议的英国退欧法案

2020-9-10 11:37

 

2020年9月9日,英国首相鲍里斯·约翰逊离开唐宁街10号前往英国伦敦的下议院。英国政府周三公布了一项有争议的法案,该法案推翻了英国与布鲁塞尔达成的脱欧协议的部分内容,尽管一位高级部长明确承认该计划将“违反国际法”。(新华社/韩燕)


新华社伦敦9月9日电英国政府9日公布了一项有争议的法案,该法案推翻了英国与布鲁塞尔达成的脱欧协议的部分内容,尽管英国一位高级部长明确承认该计划将“违反国际法”。


英国内部市场法案旨在确保北爱尔兰能够继续享受自由进入英国其他地区市场的权利。


欧盟警告说,违反该条约将阻止任何贸易协议的达成,英国对此置之不理,随后该法案得以公布。


伦敦此举正值英国与欧盟脱欧后贸易谈判进入第二天。


英国于1月31日结束了其欧盟成员国身份,但在12月31日之前的过渡期,英国仍在遵守欧盟规则,以使未来能够达成一项永久性贸易协议。在此期间,英国将不得不向欧盟基金捐款,但在布鲁塞尔实施的法律上没有发言权。


英国脱欧首席谈判代表弗罗斯特星期天说,如果欧盟在渔业和国家援助规定等重大问题上不妥协,英国政府将毫不畏惧地退出正在伦敦举行的与欧盟的谈判。


该法案赋予部长们自行决定对货物以及北爱尔兰和英国之间的国家援助进行检查的权力,而不是与欧洲达成一致。


它还说,法案的规定“必须提出,不管任何有关的国际法或国内法”,意思是必须首先考虑这项立法。


总部位于伦敦的《标准晚报》(Evening Standard)表示:“政府现在公布的新法案,进一步加剧了英国议会、布鲁塞尔和国际社会的愤怒。”


日益增长的反弹


北爱尔兰事务大臣布兰登·刘易斯周二对议员们说,这项立法将以“非常具体和有限的方式”违反国际法。


首相正面临保守党对该计划越来越强烈的反对。英国下议院国防委员会主席托拜厄斯·埃尔伍德(Tobias Ellwood)表示,如果英国政府对该协议进行修改,英国将“失去道德制高点”。该协议确保了英国在明年1月脱离欧盟。


与此同时,欧盟委员会呼吁与英国进行紧急会谈。


欧盟委员会主席乌尔苏拉·冯·德莱恩说,她“非常关注英国政府宣布的违反脱欧协议的意图”。


“这将违反国际法,破坏信任。约定必须遵守=未来繁荣关系的基础,”她在推特上写道。


欧洲理事会(European Council)主席查尔斯•米歇尔(Charles Michel)表示:“撤军协议已经达成并得到双方的批准,必须得到全面实施。”


他说:“违反国际法是不可接受的,也不会建立我们建立未来关系所需的信心。”


双方的回应


唐宁街一直在寻求证明该法案的合理性,称脱欧协议是“在可能面临的最具挑战性的政治环境下”达成的。


“脱欧协议和《北爱尔兰议定书》与其他任何条约都不一样,”首相的官方发言人说。


发言人说:“在最具挑战性的政治环境下,英国人民以保护北爱尔兰特殊环境的明确首要目的,步调一致地达成了一个明确的政治决定。”


该发言人说:“这份报告含糊不清,在关键领域也不明确。”“这份文件是基于这样一种假设,即我们和欧盟之间可能就细节问题达成澄清这些方面的后续协议,而且这还是有可能的。”


与此同时,英国政府也否认英国内部市场法案是一种权力攫取。


“绝对不会。当过渡时期在12月结束时,已经移交的政府将会享受到权力的激增,”首相发言人说。


他说:“已经移交的政府权力不会有任何变化,从布鲁塞尔移交的绝大多数权力将直接移交给霍利鲁德、斯托蒙特和加的夫湾。”


他补充道:“权力回归英国政府是为了保护经济。”

 

约翰逊周三在英国议会发表讲话时为这项立法进行了辩护,称它提供了一张“法律安全网”,防止对协议中北爱尔兰条款的“极端或非理性解读”,而这些解读可能会导致建立“沿爱尔兰海而下的边界”。


该计划公布后,反对党工党(Labour Party)领袖基尔•斯塔默(Keir Starmer)的发言人说,该党正在考虑对该法案进行“可能的修订”,引起“严重关切”。


他说:“对法案的内容、对权力下放的影响以及对北爱尔兰议定书的影响,显然存在严重的担忧。”


与此同时,苏格兰首席大臣尼古拉·斯特金在推特上写道:“根据首相的说法,在大选时它是‘准备好了烤炉’——现在,当他们违反国际法想要抛弃它时,它是‘匆忙签署的’……他们在糟蹋英国的国际声誉。”

 

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson leaves 10 Downing Street for the House of Commons in London, Britain, Sept. 9, 2020. The British government on Wednesday published a controversial bill which overrides elements of the Brexit deal with Brussels, despite a senior minister explicitly acknowledging that the plan would "break international law". (Xinhua/Han Yan)

LONDON, Sept. 9 (Xinhua) -- The British government on Wednesday published a controversial bill which overrides elements of the Brexit deal with Brussels, despite a senior minister explicitly acknowledging that the plan would "break international law".

The UK Internal Markets Bill is intended to ensure Northern Ireland can continue to enjoy unfettered access to markets in the rest of Britain.

The bill was published after Britain brushed aside warnings from the European Union (EU) that breaching the treaty would prevent any trade deal being struck.

London's move came as the Britain-EU post-Brexit trade talks entered its second day here.

Britain ended its EU membership on Jan. 31 but is still following EU rules during the transition period until Dec. 31 to enable a permanent future trade deal to be reached. During this period, Britain would have to pay into EU funds but have no say in laws imposed by Brussels.

The British chief Brexit negotiator David Frost said Sunday that his government is unafraid to walk away from the ongoing talks with the EU in London if the regional bloc does not compromise on major issues, including fisheries and state aid rules.

The bill gives ministers the power to decide themselves, rather than in agreement with Europe, about checks on goods as well as on state aid between Northern Ireland and Great Britain.

It also says that the provisions in the bill "must be introduced notwithstanding any relevant international or domestic law", meaning that this legislation must be regarded first.

"The government has now published the new legislation which has intensified further anger in Westminster, Brussels and the international community," said the London-based Evening Standard newspaper.

GROWING BACKLASH

Northern Ireland Secretary Brandon Lewis told MPs on Tuesday that the legislation would breach international law in a "very specific and limited way."

The prime minister is facing a growing Tory backlash over the plans. Tobias Ellwood, chairman of the Commons Defence Committee, said that if the British government went through with the changes to the agreement, which secured Britain's departure from the EU in January, it would "lose the moral high ground."

Meanwhile, the European Commission has called for urgent talks with Britain.

European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said she was "very concerned about announcements from the British government on its intentions to breach the Withdrawal Agreement."

"This would break international law and undermines trust. Pacta sunt servanda = the foundation of prosperous future relations," she tweeted.

For his part, President of the European Council Charles Michel said: "The Withdrawal agreement was concluded and ratified by both sides, it has to be applied in full."

"Breaking international law is not acceptable and does not create the confidence we need to build our future relationship," he said.

RESPONSES FROM BOTH SIDES

Downing Street has been seeking to justify the bill, saying the Brexit deal was agreed "at pace in the most challenging possible political circumstances."

"The Withdrawal Agreement and the Northern Ireland Protocol aren't like any other treaty," the prime minister's official spokesman said.

"It was agreed at pace in the most challenging possible political circumstances to deliver on a clear political decision by the British people with the clear overriding purpose of protecting the special circumstances of Northern Ireland," the spokesman said.

"It contains ambiguities and in key areas there is a lack of clarity," the spokesman said. "It was written on the assumption that subsequent agreements to clarify these aspects could be reached between us and the EU on the details and that may yet be possible."

Meanwhile, the British government also denied the UK Internal Market Bill is a power grab.

"Absolutely not. What the devolved administrations will enjoy is a power surge when the transition period ends in December, " said the prime minister's spokesman.

"There will be no change to the powers the devolved administrations already have and the vast majority of powers with devolved competencies returning from Brussels will go straight to Holyrood, Stormont and Cardiff Bay," he said.

"Where powers are coming back to the UK Government this is to protect the economy," he added.

Speaking in the British parliament on Wednesday, Johnson defended the legislation, saying it provided a "legal safety net" to protect against "extreme or irrational interpretations" of the Northern Ireland provisions of the agreement which could lead to the creation of "a border down the Irish Sea."

Following the publication of the plans, the opposition Labour Party said it is looking at "potential amendments" to the bill amid "serious concerns," a spokesman for its leader Keir Starmer said.

"There are obviously serious concerns about the contents of the Bill, the implications on devolution and the implications on the Northern Ireland Protocol," he said.

Meanwhile, Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon tweeted: "In the General Election it was, according to the PM 'oven ready' -- now, when they want to jettison it in breach of international law, it was 'signed in a rush'... They are trashing the UK's international reputation."

 

来自: xinhua