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欧洲央行探索数字欧元:关键是各个国家对支付和货币的信任

2020-9-14 15:05

 

在2020年9月10日的德意志银行虚拟会议上,欧洲央行行长克里斯蒂娜·拉加德就数字经济中的银行和支付问题发表了演讲。在讨论加强欧洲支付系统的举措时,拉加德再次提到可能引入数字欧元。


拉加德认为,“中央银行可以而且应该在其职权范围内,成为变革的推动者,履行对公民的责任。”她接着说,央行需要预测数字创新的变化、风险和潜力。


这位欧洲央行行长指出了全球支付的两个趋势。一个是消费者对数字支付越来越青睐,另一个是在全球范围内主导支付的竞争。在谈到这一点时,她提到了七国集团关于stablecoins和Facebook天秤座的工作文件。这让她想到了数字欧元,她说:“引入数字欧元将使欧元体系处于创新的前沿。”


拉加德承认,数字批发货币并非新事物,但用于提高金融交易效率的技术将是新事物。另一方面,中央银行数字货币(CBDC)的零售使用非常不同。她强调了需要考虑的三个因素。


第一个目标是确保欧元体系继续让所有公民都能获得纸币。数字欧元将被视为实物现金的补充,而不是替代品。其目的是通过数字欧元和现金来支持消费者的选择和金融包容性,这与欧洲央行尊重消费者支付偏好的政策是一致的。


第二个考虑因素是潜在风险,这些风险可能对欧洲央行实施货币政策和管理金融稳定的方式产生直接影响。如果大量消费者选择数字欧元而不是银行存款,这种情况就可能发生。


最后,拉加德强调,数字欧元不应阻碍私人支付解决方案。虽然满足消费者对数字支付系统的需求很重要,但私营部门也应该欢迎创新,“以确保支付领域保持竞争力和创新性。”


是否引入数字欧元的最终决定还没有做出,但CBDC工作组应该在未来几周向公众公布他们的调查结果。在此之后,公众谘询将会开始。


正如拉加德本人所说,世界各地的银行一直在考虑可能发行自己的cbdc。欧洲央行肯定已经考虑数字欧元有一段时间了。在2019年12月的新闻发布会上,拉加德证实欧洲央行将加快其工作组的工作,探索央行数字货币,该工作组于2019年11月成立。


2020年5月,欧洲央行执行委员会成员、监事会副主席Yves Mersch在“2020共识”虚拟会议上发表了关于欧洲央行数字货币的演讲,强调欧洲央行愿意在可行的情况下引入一种数字货币。而欧洲央行系统(ESCB)欧洲链研究网络发表了埃森哲关于CBDCs匿名化的研究。

 

At the Deutsche Bundesbank virtual conference on 10 September 2020, President of the European Central Bank (ECB) Christine Lagarde gave a speech on banking and payments in the digital economy. Lagarde once again mentioned possibly introducing a digital euro when discussing initiatives to strengthen European payment systems.

Lagarde considers “central banks can and should, within their mandates, be agents of change and fulfill their responsibilities towards citizens.” She continued by saying that central banks need to anticipate the change, risks, and potential of digital innovations. 

The ECB president identified two trends in global payments. One is the increasing consumer preference for digital payments, and the other is the competition to dominate payments on a global scale. On this note, she referred to the G7 working paper on stablecoins and Facebook’s Libra. That brought her to the digital euro, saying, “introducing a digital euro would allow the Eurosystem to be at the cutting edge of innovation.”

Lagarde acknowledged that digital wholesale money is not new, but the technology to be used to make financial transactions more efficient will be. On the other hand, retail use of a central bank digital currency (CBDC) is very different. She highlighted three considerations to take into account. 

The first will be to ensure the Eurosystem will continue to make banknotes accessible to all citizens. The digital euro will be regarded as a complement to physical cash, not a substitute. The aim will be for digital euro and cash to support consumer choice and financial inclusion, which is in line with the ECB’s policy of respecting consumer payment preferences.

The second consideration is the potential risks, which could have direct consequences to the way the ECB implements monetary policy and manages financial stability. This could occur if a significant amount of consumers chose the digital euro over bank deposits. 

Last but not least, Lagarde stressed that a digital euro should not discourage private payment solutions. While it’s important to meet consumer demand for a digital payment system, innovation should still be welcomed in the private sector too, “to ensure that the payment landscape remains competitive and innovative.”

A final decision has not been made whether or not to introduce the digital euro, but the CBDC Task Force should be releasing their findings to the public in the next few weeks. After this, a public consultation will be opened. 

As noted by Lagarde herself, banks all over the world have been looking at possibly issue their own CBDCs. The digital euro has certainly been on the ECB’s mind for a while now. At a press conference in December 2019, Lagarde confirmed the ECB will accelerate the work of its task force exploring central bank digital currencies, which was created in November 2019.

In May 2020, Member of the ECB’s Executive Board and Vice-Chair of its Supervisory Board, Yves Mersch, gave a speech regarding ECB digital currency at the Consensus 2020 virtual conference, emphasizing the ECB’s willingness to introduce a digital currency if it’s feasible. And the European System of Central Bank’s (ESCB) EUROchain research network published research by Accenture on anonymity for CBDCs.

 

来自: Ledger Insights