找回密码
 立即注册
首页 区块链新闻 查看内容
  • QQ空间

印度希望再次禁止加密货币

2020-9-16 12:10

 

Bloomberg Quint援引未具名消息人士的话说,禁止加密货币的法律草案几乎已经完成,将由联邦内阁讨论。草案经过讨论后,将提交议会审议。


除了时机,这就不是什么新闻了。去年,印度央行(Reserve Bank of India)向受监管的实体发出通知,禁止进行加密货币交易。这有效地阻止了数字货币的进入。七个月前,最高法院裁定,在没有立法的情况下,央行不能发布这样的裁决,这打开了加密货币的闸门。


然而,在那个阶段,一个条例草案已经在起草中。因此,我们注意到,这种喘息可能是短暂的。


央行辩称,替代支付系统可能会削弱当前的银行系统及其影响货币政策的能力。可以说,印度的支付系统是世界上最先进的之一。

 

使用加密技术来逃税?


“在这个世界上,除了死亡和税收,没有什么是确定无疑的。“本杰明富兰克林


除了央行声明的原因,还有另一个重要因素。任何曾经向印度汇款的人都知道,印度银行要求付款的理由。据推测,这是用于监控反洗钱,但也用于避税。在国内和国外,有相当数量的印度人在为外国公司工作。因此,提供一种不受监控的支付方式也会影响税收收入。


2019年,全球汇款市场为6530亿美元,印度占830亿美元。尽管印度的汇款成本平均为7%,但由于市场规模庞大,印度总体上受益于较低的汇款利率。例如,世界银行(World Bank)说,从美国向印度汇款200美元的平均成本是3.37%。但如果收款人有银行账户,并使用互联网进行支付,有两种选择的收款人支付比例低于0.5%。而使用加密货币的人更有可能符合这一模式。这并不是说,对于印度公民来说,在交易量较小的走廊进行加密货币汇款就没有潜在的成本好处。

 

秘密泄露了吗?


从逃税的角度来看,一旦一个国家有大量用户拥有自己的钱包,执行禁令就会困难得多,除非处罚足够严厉,让人产生恐惧感。p2p交易的本质意味着人们可以转移他们已经拥有的资金。毫无疑问,当地的交易员会成为那些需要将加密货币兑换成现金的人的非官方货币兑换商。


另一个重要因素是印度人对加密货币的兴趣。益普索•莫里(Ipsos MORI)和智库OMFIF进行的一项研究显示,印度人在很多问题上对数字货币最为乐观,其中包括科技公司或央行发行的数字货币。


这就引出了印度的计划。今年年初,作为区块链国家战略工作的一部分,央行数字货币(CBDC)是一个可能被调查的话题。彭博的文章称,政府正在计划建立CBDC,但这似乎是基于同样的战略文件,我们没有以同样的方式解读,因为这是一份建议草案。但那是一段时间以前的事了。

 

A draft law to ban cryptocurrencies is almost complete and will be discussed by the federal cabinet, reports Bloomberg Quint, citing unnamed sources. After the discussion of the draft bill, it will be put to parliament.

Other than timing, this isn’t news. Last year the Reserve Bank of India issued a circular to regulated entities banning dealings in cryptocurrencies. This effectively blocked the onramp to digital currencies. Seven months ago, the Supreme Court ruled that the central bank couldn’t issue such a ruling in the absence of legislation, opening the cryptocurrency floodgates.

However, at that stage, a draft regulation was already in the works. Hence we noted the respite might be short lived.

The central bank had argued that an alternative payment system could undermine the current banking system and its ability to influence monetary policy. Arguably, India’s payment system is one of the world’s more advanced.

Crypto as a route for tax evasion?

“In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.” Benjamin Franklin

Apart from the central bank’s stated reasons, there’s another important factor. Anyone who has ever sent money to India will know that Indian banks require the reasons for payment. Presumably, this is used to monitor for anti money laundering but also tax avoidance. There are a significant number of Indians both in the country and abroad that work for foreign companies. So providing an unmonitored route for payments could also impact tax receipts.

In 2019 the global remittance market was $653 billion and India accounted for $83 billion. While there is an average headline figure of 7% as the cost for remittances, India generally benefits from lower rates because of its large market. For example, the World Bank says the average cost of remitting $200 to India from the U.S. is 3.37%. But where the recipient has a bank account and uses the internet for payments, there are two options that are less than 0.5%. And a person who uses cryptocurrency is more likely to fit that pattern. That’s not to say that there aren’t potential cost benefits to Indian citizens for cryptocurrency remittances in less trafficked corridors.

Is the cat out of the bag?

From the perspective of tax evasion, once a large number of users already have wallets within a country, it’s much harder to enforce a ban unless the penalties are sufficiently draconian to instill a sense of fear. The very nature of peer to peer trading means that people can move around the money they already have. And there will doubtless be local traders who become unofficial money changers for those that need to convert the cryptocurrencies to cash.

Another important factor is the interest of the Indian population in cryptocurrencies. In research conducted by Ipsos MORI and think tank OMFIF, Indians measured the most optimistic about digital currency for many questions, including digital currencies issued by technology firms or central banks.

Which leads on to India’s plans. At the start of the year, as part of work on a national blockchain strategy, a central bank digital currency (CBDC) is a topic that may be investigated. Bloomberg’s article said the government is planning a CBDC, but this appeared to be based on the same strategy document, which we didn’t interpret the same way given it was a draft document of suggestions. But that was some time ago.

 

来自: Ledger Insights