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由于COVID-19激增阻碍了劳动力市场的复苏,美国12月失去了14万个工作岗位

2021-1-9 12:28

 

新华网华盛顿1月8日电美国劳工部8日发布报告称,由于近期新冠肺炎疫情导致就业市场复苏停滞,12月美国雇主裁员14万人,为2020年4月以来首次出现月度就业下降。


劳工部劳工统计局(BLS)在其月度就业报告中表示:“就业人数的下降反映了最近冠状病毒(COVID-19)病例的增加和遏制疫情的努力。”


富国证券(Wells Fargo Securities)高级经济学家莎拉•豪斯(Sarah House)在一份分析报告中写道,病毒对接触率高的服务和更容易疏远社会的工作的“不均衡影响”“充分体现出来”。


劳工统计局的报告指出,休闲和酒店行业的就业人数减少了49.8万人,其中食品和饮料行业的就业人数减少了37.2万人,占减少总数的四分之三。自2020年2月以来,休闲和酒店行业的就业人数减少了390万,降幅达23.2%。


与此同时,报告显示,去年12月私立教育行业的就业人数减少了6.3万人,自2月份以来该行业的就业人数减少了45万人。


当月政府雇员也减少了45000人。自今年2月以来,政府裁员130万人。


根据该局的报告,12月,休闲、酒店和私人教育行业的失业被专业和商业服务、零售贸易和建筑行业的就业增长部分抵消。


报告还显示,10月份非农就业总人数的增幅向上修正了4.4万至65.4万,11月份的增幅向上修正了9.1万至33.6万。


在去年3月和4月COVID-19大范围关闭期间,2200万美国人失去了工作。最新数据显示,12月失业人数保持在1070万人不变,比2020年2月大流行前的水平高出约500万人。


报告显示,失业率在过去七个月一直呈下降趋势,12月保持在6.7%不变,表明大流行的复苏扰乱了劳动力市场的复苏。


统计局指出,12月份的失业率较2020年4月的近期高点下降了8个百分点,但比2月份大流行前的水平高出3.2个百分点。


彼得森国际经济研究所(PIIE)高级研究员弗曼和哈佛大学肯尼迪学院副研究员鲍威尔星期五发表分析报告说,最新公布的官方失业率低估了失业率1.9%。


弗曼和鲍威尔计算出,考虑到报告称“由于其他原因没有工作”的工人以及劳动力参与率异常大幅下降,12月份的“现实失业率”为8.6%。


他们指出,美国的劳动力市场在春末和夏季出现了初步的“部分反弹”,因为随着企业重新开业,失业率起初迅速下降,但复苏的步伐“在整个秋季都有所放缓,现在已经逆转”。


众议院补充称,12月就业人口减少印证了近期初请失业金人数上升趋势、供应管理协会(ISM)服务业就业指数低于50以及小型企业招聘计划下滑所带来的就业形势恶化。


过去几个月,每周首次申请失业救济人数大幅下降,但在截至11月14日和21日的几周,以及截至12月5日和12月12日的几周,随着COVID-19疫情飙升,这一趋势最近有所逆转。


根据最新的服务业管理协会商业报告,12月服务业采购经理人指数(PMI)为57.2%,比11月高出1.3个百分点。


ISM报告显示,就业指数下降3.3个百分点至48.2%,为连续三个月增长后首次萎缩。


众议院指出,最新一轮的COVID-19救助计划将通过额外的工资保障计划(PPP)贷款和有针对性的紧急拨款帮助小企业留住更多员工,帮助加快劳动力市场的复苏。


她说:“尽管如此,由于疫情继续肆虐,未来几个月的就业市场可能依然黯淡。”

 

WASHINGTON, Jan. 8 (Xinhua) -- U.S. employers slashed 140,000 jobs in December, the first monthly decline in employment since April 2020, as recent COVID-19 spikes stall labor market recovery, the Labor Department reported Friday.

"The decline in payroll employment reflects the recent increase in coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and efforts to contain the pandemic," the department's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) said in its monthly employment report.

Sarah House, senior economist at Wells Fargo Securities, wrote in an analysis that the "uneven impact" of the virus on high-contact services and jobs where it is easier to socially distance was "on full display."

Employment in leisure and hospitality declined by 498,000, with three-quarters of the decrease in food services and drinking places, by 372,000, the BLS report noted. Since February 2020, employment in leisure and hospitality has been down by 3.9 million, or 23.2 percent.

Employment in private education, meanwhile, decreased by 63,000 in December, the report showed, noting that employment in the industry has fallen by 450,000 since February.

Government employment also declined by 45,000 in the month. Since February, government employment overall has been cut by 1.3 million.

In December, job losses in leisure and hospitality and in private education were partially offset by gains in professional and business services, retail trade, and construction, according to the bureau's report.

The report also showed that growth in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised up by 44,000 to 654,000, and the gain for November was revised up by 91,000 to 336,000.

Amid widespread COVID-19 shutdowns in March and April last year, 22 million Americans lost their jobs. The latest data showed that the number of unemployed in December remained unchanged at 10.7 million, which is about 5 million higher than pre-pandemic level in February 2020.

The unemployment rate, which has been trending down over the past seven months, remained unchanged at 6.7 percent in December, the report showed, indicating the disruption to the labor market recovery by resurgent pandemic.

The unemployment rate in December was down by 8 percentage points from its recent high in April 2020 but is 3.2 percentage points higher than its pre-pandemic level in February, the bureau noted.

In an analysis published Friday, Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE) senior fellow Jason Furman and Harvard Kennedy School research associate Wilson Powell argued that the newly released official unemployment rate understates the level of joblessness by 1.9 percent.

Furman and Powell calculated that the "realistic unemployment rate" was 8.6 percent in December, taking into account workers who reported being "not at work for other reasons" and the unusually large decline in labor force participation.

They noted that the country saw an initial "partial bounce back" in the labor market in the late spring and summer, as the unemployment rate fell quickly at first as businesses reopened, but the pace of recovery has "slowed throughout the fall and has now reversed."

House added that the job loss in December corroborates the deteriorating jobs picture offered by the recent upward trend in jobless claims, the sub-50 reading from the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) services employment index and the drop in small business hiring plans.

Weekly initial jobless claims have been largely declining in the past few months, but the trend was recently reversed in the weeks ending Nov. 14 and Nov. 21, and then in the weeks ending Dec. 5 and Dec. 12 amid COVID-19 spikes.

The Services Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) registered 57.2 percent in December, 1.3 percentage point higher than the November reading, according to the latest Services ISM Report on Business.

The employment index, however, fell by 3.3 percentage points to 48.2 percent, marking the first contraction after three consecutive months of growth, the ISM report showed.

House noted the latest round of COVID-19 relief is poised to help speed the labor market's recovery with additional Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans and targeted emergency grants helping small businesses retain more employees.

"Nevertheless, the next few months are likely to remain bleak in the jobs market as the pandemic continues to rage," she said.

 

来自: xinhua