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在经济复苏放缓之际,美联储将利率维持在接近于零的水平

2021-1-30 14:00

 

这张照片拍摄于2021年1月27日,显示的是美国华盛顿特区的美联储。美国联邦储备委员会(Federal Reserve)周三将基准利率维持在接近零的历史最低水平不变,目前美国正在应对新冠肺炎病例激增导致的经济复苏放缓。(新华社/刘杰)


新华网华盛顿1月27日电(记者刘建军)美国联邦储备委员会27日决定维持基准利率在接近零的历史最低水平不变,以应对新冠肺炎疫情对美国经济复苏的影响。


美联储主席杰罗姆·鲍威尔在周三下午的新闻发布会上表示:“经济的走向继续在很大程度上取决于病毒的进程。”


鲍威尔继续说:“最近几个月COVID-19病例、住院和死亡的重新抬头,给数百万美国人带来了巨大困难,并对经济活动和就业创造造成了压力。”


伯南克指出,在去年夏季经济活动大幅反弹后,近几个月复苏步伐“有所放缓”,经济疲软集中在受病毒复苏和社交距离扩大影响最严重的行业。


鲍威尔说:“经济离我们的就业和通胀目标还有很长的路要走,可能还需要一段时间才能取得进一步的实质性进展。”


在结束2021年第一次政策会议后,美联储决定将联邦基金利率的目标区间维持在0- 0.25%。


指出,通货膨胀一直持续低于美联储2%的长期目标,联邦公开市场委员会(FOMC),美联储的决策机构,周三下午发表的一份声明中表示,它将致力于实现2%以上的适度通货膨胀在一段时间内随着时间的推移,通胀率平均2%。


央行还表示,将继续增加其持有的国债代理每月至少800亿美元,每月至少400亿美元抵押贷款支持证券,直到“进一步实质性进展”向美联储的充分就业和物价稳定的目标。


鲍威尔指出,近几个月来,就业市场改善的步伐有所放缓。她说,就业市场参与率低于大流行前的水平,实际失业率接近10%,约有900万美国人仍因大流行而失业。


伯南克表示:“经济低迷对所有美国人的影响并非均等。”特别是,服务业的低薪工人、非洲裔美国人和西班牙裔美国人的高失业率尤其严重。”


鲍威尔说,财政政策“绝对必要”。他说,自去年春天以来经济活动的全面复苏,部分原因是联邦政府提供的刺激资金和失业率的扩大,这些资金为许多家庭和个人提供了必要的支持。


然而,当被问及进一步的财政刺激时,伯南克继续没有就具体政策向国会提供建议。


他对记者表示,"支出多少、以何种方式支出的判断,实际上是国会和政府的事,而不是美联储的事,这些讨论目前正在进行。"


鲍威尔说,尽管存在这些挑战,但有几项进展表明,今年晚些时候的前景将有所改善。


他说:“足够广泛的疫苗接种将使我们能够将大流行抛在脑后,恢复更为正常的经济活动。”“与此同时,继续保持社交距离和戴口罩将有助于我们尽快实现目标。”

 

Photo taken on Jan. 27, 2021 shows the U.S. Federal Reserve in Washington, D.C., the United States. The U.S. Federal Reserve on Wednesday kept its benchmark interest rate unchanged at the record-low level of near zero, as the country grapples with slowing economic recovery amid surging COVID-19 cases. (Xinhua/Liu Jie)

WASHINGTON, Jan. 27 (Xinhua) -- The U.S. Federal Reserve on Wednesday kept its benchmark interest rate unchanged at the record-low level of near zero, as the country grapples with slowing economic recovery amid surging COVID-19 cases.

"The path of the economy continues to depend significantly on the course of the virus," Fed Chairman Jerome Powell said at a virtual press conference Wednesday afternoon.

"A resurgence in recent months of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations and deaths is causing great hardship for millions of Americans and weighing on economic activity and job creation," Powell continued.

The Fed chief noted that following a sharp rebound in economic activity last summer, the pace of the recovery has "moderated" in recent months, with the weakness concentrated in the sectors most adversely affected by the resurgence of the virus and greater social distancing.

"The economy is a long way from our employment and inflation goals, and it is likely to take sometime for substantial further progress to be achieved," Powell said.

After concluding its first policy meeting of 2021, the Fed decided to maintain the target range for the federal funds rate at 0-0.25 percent.

Noting that inflation has been running persistently below the Fed's 2-percent longer-run goal, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), the Fed's policy-making body, said in a statement released Wednesday afternoon that it will aim to achieve inflation moderately above 2 percent for some time so that inflation averages 2 percent over time.

The central bank also said it will continue to increase its holdings of Treasury securities by at least 80 billion U.S. dollars per month and of agency mortgage-backed securities by at least 40 billion dollars per month until "substantial further progress has been made" toward the Fed's maximum employment and price stability goals.

Noting that the pace of improvement in labor market has slowed in recent months, Powell said participation in labor market is below pre-pandemic levels, and real unemployment rate is close to 10 percent, with some 9 million Americans still out of work due to the pandemic.

"The economic downturn has not fallen equally on all Americans," said the Fed chair. "In particular the high level of joblessness has been especially severe for low wage workers in the service sector and African-Americans and Hispanics."

Calling fiscal policy "absolutely essential," Powell said the overall recovery in economic activity since last spring is due in part to federal stimulus payments and expanded unemployment, which provided essential support to many families and individuals.

The Fed chief, however, continued to refrain from giving Congress advice on specific policies, when asked about further fiscal stimulus.

"The judgment on how much to spend and in what way is really one for Congress and the administration and not for the Fed, and these discussions are going on right now," he told reporters.

Despite the challenges, Powell said several developments point to improved outlook for later this year.

"Sufficiently widespread vaccinations would enable us to put the pandemic behind us and return to more normal economic activities," he said. "In the meantime, continued observance of social distancing and wearing masks will help us reach the goal as soon as possible."

 

来自: xinhua