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联邦存款保险公司、美联储和OCC计划就监管加密货币达成“共同意见”

2021-5-22 20:01

 

今天,美联储副主席Randal Quarles和新的货币代理审计长Michael Hsu承认,多个机构正在协调加密货币的监管方法。至少,这些机构是美联储、货币监理署(OCC)和联邦存款保险公司。


在众议院金融服务委员会听证会上,在回答众议员Tom Emmer关于加密货币的问题时,徐道临表示:“这是一个非常非常重要的问题。我认为加密货币的崛起引起了很多关注。”


他继续说道:“在这次会议之前,Quarles副主席(美联储)、McWilliams主席(FDIC)和我曾讨论过可能就加密货币组建一个跨部门政策sprint团队,正是因为您所描述的这些担忧。”这三家监管机构都参加了众议院的听证会。


在随后的听证会上,众议员特德·巴德(Ted Budd)询问了美联储副主席夸尔斯关于加密货币的定义。


“我们正在与其他机构共同努力,思考加密领域的一些定义和法规的应用。我相信这将是其中的一部分。”夸尔斯说道。


他补充说:“我们非常专注于这些加密问题,目的是在相当短的时间内找到答案,达成共识。我相信这是可以实现的。”


本月早些时候,美国财政部长耶伦(Janet Yellen)暗示可能会有更协调的监管措施。国会议员帕特里克·麦克亨利向证券交易委员会和商品期货交易委员会提出了一项议案,要求建立一个数字资产联合工作组。到目前为止,该法案已在众议院获得通过。


自从美国证券交易委员会(SEC)新任主席加里•詹斯勒(Gary Gensler)被确认后,这种行为就一直存在。他不仅被认为是政府内部在这方面最博学的人之一,而且在上次金融危机后,他还负责CFTC衍生品监管。

OCC审查加密货币的银行托管


在听证会的早些时候,徐道辉在他的书面声明中表达了对不同机构之间缺乏协调方法的失望。他指出,上世纪90年代末和本世纪初,信用违约掉期(Credit Default Swaps)等新工具曾出现过一个又一个机构的分散模式。人们普遍指责这些工具造成了金融危机。


“监管机构必须共同回答的关键战略问题是:我们应该在哪里设置监管边界?”据我所知,对这个问题的答案没有共同的理解,也没有实现它的总体战略。”


在OCC前任代理负责人布莱恩·布鲁克斯(Brian Brooks)的领导下,对特许国家银行和信托公司的框架进行了审查,一份解释性信函表示,银行可以托管加密货币。徐表示:“我已经要求工作人员对这些行为进行审查。”我们注意到,他并没有提到布鲁克斯另外两份允许银行持有稳定币储备并参与稳定币网络的解释信。回顾这些可能会破坏吴廷琰的最新计划。


代表Ted Budd指出,三家加密货币托管公司Anchorage、Protego和Paxos获得了国家信托特许。他询问了其他未决申请的时间表。


“我现在不知道时间表。它正在审查。这还在讨论中,”徐道辉说,并指出他刚刚担任新角色10天。“我敢说,我们不会拖到最后。”


区块链公司Figure Technologies已经申请了国家银行执照,这引起了一些现有公司的阻力。Budd似乎很支持Figure,并询问它的应用程序进展如何。该公司以区块链为基础处理抵押贷款,并将其证券化。它还推出了Figure Pay,这是一款基于稳定币的支付应用程序,将为未开户银行提供销售点信贷。


“该申请绝对是正在审查的一系列申请的一部分,”OCC的Hsu说。“我们已经就此进行了一些初步讨论。我得多了解点情况再告诉他。但这在很大程度上仍在审查之中。”


然后Budd询问Randal Quarles关于不接受存款的信托特许银行或起源于加密世界的州特许银行的支付权限。我们注意到,Figure可能被归类为后者。


“我们确实允许非存托信托公司进入。我们最近发布了一套管理所有机构账户准入的原则,以承认越来越多的机构可能对账户准入感兴趣。”夸尔斯说。


“在我们开发出新的框架之前,我们还没有做出关于帐户访问的决定。”


在同一场听证会上,美国国家信用合作社管理局(NCUA)主席托德•哈珀(Todd Harper)表示,NCUA计划发布有关数字资产信息的请求,这与FDIC本周早些时候公布的调查问卷没有什么不同。

 

Today the Vice-Chair of the Federal Reserve, Randal Quarles and the new Acting Comptroller of the Currency, Michael Hsu, acknowledged that multiple agencies are coordinating regulatory approaches to cryptocurrencies. At the very least, those agencies are the Federal Reserve, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) and the FDIC.

Responding to a question about cryptocurrencies from Representative Tom Emmer during a Hearing at the House Committee of Financial Services, Hsu said, “This is a really really important issue. I think the rise of crypto has garnered a lot of attention.”

He continued, “Prior to this meeting, Vice Chair Quarles (Fed), Chair McWilliams (FDIC) and I had talked about potentially putting together an interagency policy sprint team just on crypto because of exactly the concerns you’ve described.” All three regulators participated in the House hearing.

Later in the hearing, Representative Ted Budd asked Fed Vice Chair Quarles about the definition of a cryptocurrency.

“We are engaged with the other agencies in a joint effort to think through some of the crypto definitions and the application of regulations in crypto areas. I’m sure that will be part of it,” said Quarles.

He added, “We’re focused very intently on these crypto issues with the aim of having answers, joint views, fairly quickly. I’m sure that will be achievable.”

Earlier this month, Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen dropped hints that there might be a more coordinated regulatory approach. And Congressman Patrick McHenry introduced a bill for the SEC and the CFTC to create a joint working group on digital assets. So far, the Bill has been passed by the House. 

This activity has happened since the new SEC Chair Gary Gensler was confirmed. Not only would he be considered one of the most knowledgeable on the topic within the administration, but he also took charge of CFTC derivatives regulations after the last financial crisis.

OCC reviewing bank custody of cryptocurrencies

Earlier in the hearing in his prepared statement, the OCC’s Hsu expressed frustration about the lack of a coordinated approach amongst different agencies. He pointed to a previous fragmented agency by agency approach to new instruments like Credit Default Swaps in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These instruments are widely blamed for causing the financial crisis.

“The key strategic question which the regulatory community must answer collectively is: Where should we set the regulatory perimeter? To my knowledge, there is not a shared understanding of the answer to that question and no overarching strategy to achieve it,” said Hsu.

Under previous acting OCC head Brian Brooks, the framework for chartering national banks and trust companies was reviewed, and an interpretive letter said banks could custody cryptocurrencies. “I have asked staff to review these actions,” said Hsu. We note that he did not refer to two other Brooks interpretive letters allowing banks to hold stablecoin reserves and participate in stablecoin networks. Reviewing those might scupper Diem’s latest plans.

Representative Ted Budd noted that national trust charters had been granted to three cryptocurrency custody firms Anchorage, Protego and Paxos. He asked about the timetable for other outstanding applications.

“I don’t know the timetable right now. It’s under review. It’s under discussion,” said Hsu, noting that he was only ten days into his new role. “We’re not going to drag it out, that I can say.”

Blockchain company Figure Technologies has applied for a national bank charter which has caused some pushback from incumbents. Budd seemed supportive of Figure and asked how its application is progressing. The company processes mortgages on a blockchain and securitizes them. It’s also launching Figure Pay, a stablecoin based payments application that will provide point-of-sale credit to the underbanked. 

“That application is definitely part of the set of applications that are under review,” said the OCC’s Hsu. “We’ve had some preliminary discussions about it. I need to learn more before signaling where that’s going. But that is very much under review.”

Then Budd asked Randal Quarles about payment access to trust charter banks that don’t take deposits or state-chartered banks that originate in the crypto world. We note that Figure might be classed as the latter.

“We do grant access to non depositary trust companies. We recently released a set of principles to govern account access for all institutions as a recognition that there is an increasing variety of institutions that is potentially interested in account access,” said Quarles. 

“We haven’t made a decision about account access until we develop new frameworks.”

During the same hearing, Todd Harper, Chairman of the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), said the NCUA plans to issue a request for information about digital assets, not dissimilar to the FDIC questionnaire published earlier this week.

 

来自: Ledger Insights